Course Synopsis:

This course covers the importance of moisture content in agricultural products and its methods for determination, principle of drying, theory of diffusion, and mechanisms of drying including puff drying, foam mat drying, freeze drying, calculation of drying air temperature and air flow rate, air pressure within the grain bed.  The course also elaborates on different types of dryers, their performances, energy utilization and efficiency in relation to drying and dehydration of agricultural products. The course discusses the types and causes of spoilage in storage, conditions for storage such as functional requirements of storage with emphasis on highly perishable AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE as well as cereal grains, control of temperature and relative humidity inside storage, and calculation of refrigeration load, designing conditioning of environment inside storage through natural, mechanical ventilation and cooling and transportation of refrigerated agricultural produce.

Course Outcomes:

Ability to analyze drying/refrigeration process of biological materials and calculate the parameters influencing the process in solving complex engineering problems.
Ability to compare mechanisms of spoilage in highly perishable horticultural produce and cereal grain and design solutions based on appropriate postharvest handling technologies to control them.
Ability to select appropriate conditioning of environments and post harvest treatments for safe handlings of highly perishable horticultural and livestock produce. 


Mohammed Wasim Siddiqui. 2015. Postharvest Biology and Technology of Horticultural Crops: Principles and Practices for Quality Maintenance, Apple Academic Press, 572 pg, ISBN: 9781771880862. 
AmalenduChakraverty, Paul Singh, R. 2014. Postharvest Technology and Food Process Engineering 1st Edition, CRC Prees, 581 pg, ISBN-101466553200. 
Milind, S. Ladaniya. 2008. Citrus Fruits – Biology, Technology and Evaluation. Academic Press, ISBN: 9780123741301.
Phirke, P. S. 2007. Postharvest Engineering of Fruits and Vegetables. CBS, 215 pg, ISBN 9788123914282.
Sudheer K. P., and Indira, V. 2007. Post harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. New India Publishing Agency. 
Frank, P. Incropera, David, P. Dewitt, Theodore, L. Bergman and Adrienne, S. Lavine. 2007. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1070 pg, ISBN-100471457280.


Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3 (KPPJ3), Kawasan Perindustrian Jejawi,

02600, Arau, Perlis

T: +604-9798751|  F: +604-9798755

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